The gut microbiome plays a significant role in the development of graft vs host disease following stem cell transplant. However, it is unknown whether the pre-transplant or post-transplant bacterial community is more influential in disease progression. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate that when both the pre- and post-transplant gut microbiome is modified, the development of disease in wild-type mice is greatly accelerated. An altered post-transplant microbiome also accelerates disease, however to a lesser degree. In contrast, changing the pre-transplant microbiome alone does not accelerate disease. These findings suggest post-transplant manipulation of the gut microbiome, such as via faecal microbiota transplantation, may provide the greatest clinical benefit.

Gut Microbes. 2020 Jan 13:1-17. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2019.1705729

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